青海快3昨日走势 青海快3最多几倍 青海快3和值走势图带连线 青海快3历史开奖结果走势图 青海快3网 青海快3规律破解 青海快3开奖结果今天 青海快3+111 青海快3第111505期开 23号青海快3走势 青海快35月10开奖结果 青海快3走势图基本走势 青海快3规律破解 甘肃快3青海快3 青海快3开奖号码今天专家推测

Before the Hurricane 在颶風來臨前

Before the Hurricane
在颶風來臨前

作者:BRANKO MARCETIC
原文 https://jacobinmag.com/2017/08/hurricane-harvey-cuba-disaster-plan

翻譯:洪昇邦Zaying Hung
校對:江慧儀


Cuba is a world leader in hurricane preparedness and recovery. What can we learn from the small island nation?
古巴以颶風防災準備和復原能力雄冠世界,我們能向這個小島國學習些什麼?

Along with the horrifying images of floating corpses, devastating flooding, and people trapped on makeshift islands, another indelible image has emerged from the Hurricane Harvey catastrophe. In the midst of disaster, locals began sharing pictures of hundreds of fire ants forming chain-linked rafts to float on water and protect their queen, eggs, and young.
伴隨著浮屍、洪水、人們隨著飄浮物載浮載沉等觸目驚心的畫面,在哈維颶風中還看得到另一種令人難忘的景象。在受災期間,當地的?#29992;?#38283;始分享數百隻火蟻連結成浮艇,保護著牠們的女王、蛋與幼蟲的照片。
This striking display of insect solidarity in the face of calamity seemed to contrast with the human response to Harvey, which, however valiant, appeared to remind us of the apparent futility of human resistance in the face of acts of God.
這個震驚的影像,關於昆蟲在面對巨難時表現出來的團結,正好對照著人類對於哈維的反應,僅管再怎麼勇敢,但仍時刻揭示著我們在神威面前的無力。
But what if I told you there was a country that has survived its last seventeen hurricanes with only thirty-five deaths? What if that country demonstrated exactly the kind of society-wide solidarity we envy the fire ants for? And what if that country had a GDP that was a fraction of the United States’?
但要是我告訴你這世上有個國家渡過了17個颶風的侵襲,卻僅僅犧牲了35條人命,這國家展現了恰如我們欽羨的火蟻般全民的團結力,而它的GDP又遠遠不及美國呢?
There is such a country: Cuba.
這個國家,就叫做古巴。
While 2016’s Hurricane Matthew killed forty-four people in the United States, it killed no one in Cuba, despite leaving a trail of destruction in its wake. Ditto for Hurricane Katrina, which left as many as 1,800 people dead in the US. In 2008, Hurricanes Gustav and Ike pummeled Cuba at the peak of their intensity, slaying seven. But in the US, thirty people perished, even though the storm had lost much of its strength. Hurricane Isabel killed more Americans in 2003 than six major hurricanes killed Cubans between 1996 and 2002.
當2016年馬修颶風在美國奪取了44條人命,然而僅管留下一條毀滅性?#33021;?#36321;,它卻在古巴一無所獲。猶如在美國奪走1800條人命?#30446;?#23828;娜颶風,2008年Gustav an以及Ike颶風同樣在它的能量頂峰重創古巴,但僅只戮及7人,反觀當它消弱了大半威力之後,仍在美國帶走30人。2003年的伊莎貝爾颶風奪取的人命還高於1996至2002間侵襲古巴的6個主要颶風?#30446;?#21644;。
The same pattern holds true for every hurricane that’s struck the two countries. It’s no wonder then that organizations like the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United Nations have repeatedly cited Cuba as a global model for risk reduction.
相同的模式一再地被印證在同時襲擊兩國的颶風,難怪像國際紅十字會與紅新月會聯合會和歐盟等組織多次?#38913;P古巴做為全球的防災模範。
So how does Cuba do it? There’s no great secret. After several particularly deadly twentieth-century hurricanes, the country simply put in place a comprehensive, all-hands-on-deck national program of disaster preparation, evacuation, relief, and recovery that involves virtually every citizen, from the national to the local levels.
那古巴到底是如何辦到的? 沒有深藏的秘訣,在歷經20世紀幾次血流漂杵的致命颶風後,這國家樸實地執行了一個充份的、全民共與的行動,包括防災準備、疏散、救濟和復甦計劃,責及每一個人,從國家?#29992;?#30452;至地方。
Rather than a side issue, forgotten until the next time disaster strikes, hurricane preparation and recovery in Cuba are treated as the life-and-death matters that they are. And while some might argue that the Cuban model is only possible because it’s a one-party state, there’s little about its hurricane program that rests on authoritarianism.
不使之流於枝節而在下一次災難來臨才又喚醒,颶風防備工作在古巴被視為至關生死的大事,事實上它也正是如此。有人或許會爭辯說古巴的成功是受益於一黨政治的特例,但它的防災計畫其實很少是基於專制來執行的。
Here are four key facets of the Cuban program that set it apart.
底下有四個關鍵因素讓古巴計劃如此傑出:


1. Cuba is always preparing for the next hurricane.
古巴隨時在為下一個颶風而準備

Cuba quite rightly assumes that another major hurricane is always right around the corner. It therefore has a variety of government entities devoted to predicting and bracing for the next hurricane. Its sixty-eight weather stations track storms, while the National Civil Defense has an early warning system, emergency stockpiles, and rescue teams.
古巴常假設下一個颶風隨時會來,事實上也相去不遠,因此政府裡有各種機構致力於預測及備戰。全國有68個氣象站監控著風暴,民防部也備有早期預警?#21040;y、儲備物資及?#20173;?#23567;組。
This by itself does not set Cuba far apart from countries like the United States. But as a 2009 delegationto Cuba from Galveston, Texas found, “preparation in Cuba is a year-round event.” All adults are mandated by law to go through a civilian defense training program that teaches them how to help during an evacuation. Every year since 1986, each and every citizen, regardless of age, has taken part in a two-day hurricane drill known as the Ejercicio Meteoro, in which they simulate an evacuation. Schools have incorporated preparedness into the curriculum at all ages.
光是這些並不足以說明古巴與美國的差異,2009年由德洲Galveston出訪古巴的代表團發現,”古巴的防災準備是全年度的項目?#20445;?#25152;有的成年人都有義務參與演習活動學習如何協助疏散。自1986年起每一個公民不論年紀都要經過一個為期兩天的颶風演練稱為Ejercicio Meteoro,於內模擬疏散情況,學校也整合防災準備為各年級的課程。
In addition, emergency plans at the national, provincial, municipal, and local levels are devised and updated annually. As part of this plan, every Cuban is designated a location for refuge well in advance of any storm.
此外,緊急應變措施於國家級、省級、縣級與地方都會每年更新,在風暴來臨前對每個古巴人民?#23478;?#21123;有指定的避難所。
Weather information, meanwhile, is broadcast continuously on state-run media, every six hours, increasing in frequency to every three hours if storms are on their way, while alerts are sounded seventy-two hours before a hurricane hits. In other words, the state of the weather is never far from Cubans’ minds.
同時,氣象資訊也每六個小時在國家媒體上廣播,在風暴接近時還縮減為每三個小時,當颶風襲擊前72小時就會有警示。也就是說,古巴人對天氣狀況隨時了然於心。

2. Everyone is mobilized.
動員每一個人

A major reason for the Cuban model’s success, particularly in a country with comparatively few resources, is its philosophy of total mobilization. The hurricane response may be directed from the top down, but it’s carried out by ordinary Cubans in their local communities, building on the regular training they receive.
古巴模式之所以成功的一個主要原因,特別是對於這樣一個資源有限的國家,是它的動員能力。對颶風的反應可能是由上往下傳遞,但卻能基於每個古巴人所受的訓練,在地方社群落實。
As Oxfam America found in a 2004 study, “the single most important thing about disaster response in Cuba is that people cooperate en masse.” Provincial and municipal leaders are made Civil Defense leaders and put in charge of their particular areas, combining a centralized decision-making process with a decentralized implementation. They call meetings, review emergency plans, assign transportation and equipment, delegate tasks and duties, and more.
美國樂施會在2004年的研究顯示,”古巴的災難應變中最重要的一件事就是人們全體一致地合作?#20445;?#30465;級和縣級首長會擔任民防部領導,負責他們專任的領域,結合中央化的決策流程和地區化的應變能力。他們的權責在組織會議、檢討急難計劃、指派交通和設備、委任任務等等。
In Cuba, everyone has a role. Doctors, school directors, members of mass organizations, and others review emergency plans and check evacuation procedures and supplies. “Everyone, even the children, knew what to do,” observed one foreign aid worker in 1996, noting how everyone in an apartment building would get to work taping up windows, stockpiling rations, cooking food, and advising neighbors on how to safeguard their property. It’s part of what the UN-Habitat has called a culture of safety.
在古巴,每個人都有自己的角色,像醫生、學校校長、群眾組織及其他相關人士,都會負責審視急難應變計劃並檢視疏散流程與補給。”每個人,連小孩子都知道他們該做什麼?#20445;?#19968;個在1996年參與的外國救難員提到,在公寓中的每個人都參與貼實窗戶、配給物資、煮食和教導鄰居如何保護他們的財產。它已經是聯合國人居署所稱”安全文化”的一部分。
Community members work to move animals to higher ground, rescue those who are stranded, and hurricane-proof homes. If a family home is deemed safe and not at risk for flooding, they take in neighbors. Otherwise, citizens are assigned to a neighbor or family member’s house, or, failing that, to a government-run group shelter (which can be anything from a school to a church).
社區?#29992;?#21512;力將牲畜趕到高處,並?#20197;?#21161;那些被困住的人。若有人的房子?#21069;?#20840;沒淹水的,就能提供給鄰居暫住,不然也有民宅是被指定為臨時庇護所,再不濟還有政府提供的避難處可以去(可能由學校或教堂充當)。
To get people there, local communities draw on whatever transportation they have on hand, from cars and trucks to boats and horse carts. Citizens are even allowed to bring pets, with veterinarians stationed at evacuation centers ready to tend to them. Municipal bakeries pitch in by providing the shelters with food.
為了把人們送到安全處,地方社區會?#24230;?#25163;上所有的交通工具,從小客車、卡車到船舶甚至馬車。人們也可以帶著寵物一同,在避難處都有獸醫安置牠們,由地方的麵包坊負責提供庇難所食物。
This continues into the recovery phase. Local communities form teams to assess the damage and start cleaning. Citizens work together to clean up and rebuild, collecting clothing and materials for the community. Some continue to live with friends and family, or in shelters, until it’s safe to go back.
接著來到了復甦階段,在地?#29992;?#32068;成小組來評估損壞並開始清理,人們一起合作來清運和重建,為社區收集衣物和物資。?#34892;?#20154;還繼續留在庇護所或跟朋友家人住,直到自己的家安全無虞。
Such solidarity is not somehow unique to Cuba. As scenes out of Texas and other disaster-stricken states over the years have shown, ordinary Americans are more than ready to sacrifice to help their neighbors. But such energies are often expended after the fact, when it’s too late, not in advance, as in Cuba.
如此的團結力並不只見於古巴,從德州和州外其他長年被災害光顧的地方來看,一般的美國人也很願意幫忙他們的鄰居,只不過這些精力都被花在事後補救上,而不是如同古巴在事前做好防備。

3. Vulnerable communities are taken care of.
照顧易受害地區

The damage wrought by natural disasters is always lopsided. In the United States, wealth inequality makes this stratification especially acute, but a whole host of other factors — from geography to personal health — also contributes to disparities.天災帶來的危害通常不是人人平等的,在美國,貧富不均使得這個階級化更嚴重,但很多其他的因素,從地理位置到個人健康,同樣會導致這個不一致。
Cuba goes out of its way to identify which of its citizens, areas, and properties are most vulnerable to disaster, at both the macro and micro levels. Municipalities compile detailed biographical information on all citizens annually, from their age to any special services they might require.
古巴發展了一套方法於巨觀與微觀的尺度來辨別哪些人、地區或房產是對災害比較敏感的。市政當局每年會對所有人彙集詳盡的個人資料,從他們的年齡到可能所需的各種服務。
Meanwhile, community members such as doctors or representatives of mass organizations assess their own neighborhoods. One explained to Oxfam that she knew the people who lived in the neighborhood and their particular needs, from an elderly woman in a wheelchair to a pregnant woman in need of assistance.
同時,社區?#29992;?#20687;醫生或組織代表也會同時評估自己的鄰里,有人向樂施會解?#23560;?#22905;了解住在附近所有鄰居的特殊需要,從需要輪椅的年長者到懷孕的婦女都?#23567;?br /> As a hurricane approaches, these local representatives make sure vulnerable people are okay, while community doctors check on patients to see if they need to go to hospital as a precaution.
當颶風來臨前,這些地方代表便會確保這些弱勢族群沒問題,社區醫生也會檢視他們的病患是否需要先去醫院做防範。


4. The protection of personal property is guaranteed, among a host of other unique measures.
連同一些獨特的措施,個人財產亦受到保障

One of the most unique elements of the Cuban model is the government’s effort to protect ordinary Cubans’ personal property. This is important for financial and sentimental reasons, but also to convince people to follow evacuation orders.
另一個古巴模範中很重要的元素就是政府對個人財產的保障,這在財務和情感上都有重大的意義,更重要的是它能說服民眾服從疏散指示。
Government officials, police, and the military are sent in to move furniture and other belongings to higher ground or somewhere else safe. Some provinces let residents put their valuables in boxes, and send them away to be stored elsewhere. To give citizens added peace of mind, the government guarantees the replacement of all destroyed property, despite the country’s meager resources.
政府雇員、警察和軍隊會幫忙將傢私或其他物品搬往安全的高處,?#34892;?#30465;份會讓民眾把值錢的家當放進箱子裡存放在某處。為了讓人民放心,政府保障賠償所有財產損失,僅管這個國家並不那麼富裕。
This is just one of a number of distinct measures the Cuban government takes during a hurricane. Print and broadcast media give detailed instructions for how to secure homes and where to go. Electricity and cooking gas mains are shut down when the wind reaches a certain speed, preventing deaths from electrocution or gas explosions. Harvesting is accelerated in advance of an event, while trees near phone and electrical wires are cleared.
這僅僅是古巴政府在風災期間採取的多樣獨特措施之一,報章雜誌和傳播媒體會傳達詳實的防災和避難指示,電力和瓦斯管線在風力超過一定標準時會關閉,避免觸電傷人或氣爆危險。在災害欲來之時採收也會加速,更要確保在電話線和電纜附近的樹木被清除。
And instead of closing hospitals and other vital services, as is often done in the US, Cuba keeps them open and secures them, to provide medical care and more to its beleaguered people. Such medical help for victims continues long after the disaster is over, a reflection of the government’s insistence that health care is a human right.
相較於在美國通常會關閉醫院和其它醫療機構,古巴會維持它們的營運並妥善維護之,來提供必要的醫療和其它協助給被圍困的人們。給受災戶的醫療協助在災情結束後還會持續好一段時間,也反應了政府在堅持醫療保健是基本人權的意念。

?
We Can Do Better
我們可以做得更好

All of this stands in stark contrast to the United States.
以上的一切都與美國有顯著的差異。
The US’s disaster response is planned and carried out with little to no citizen engagement. Municipalities don’t have to respond to a centralized body concerning evacuation procedures, but instead make their own decisions, which they can’t enforce. There’s no mandatory emergency drill or cooperation that citizens must take part in. Vulnerable communities are not mapped out, and the military’s resources are directed toward fighting far-off wars instead of helping communities back home.
美國的災難應變計劃很少是與公民共同制訂的,行政當局不必向中央單位匯報疏散程序,而是自己下決定,卻又無強制力。人民沒有強制的義務一定得採取何種作為,脆弱的地區沒有警示,軍隊的資源又被?#24230;?#22312;遠方的任務而不是就地協助。
True, the United States doesn’t have a state-run media that can broadcast information in an emergency. Yet privately run media is known to collaborate with the US government to transmit information in times of emergency, as well as cut into regular programming to deliver urgent messages from the president. It’s difficult to believe they would refuse to assist the government when natural disaster strikes.
的確,美國沒有一個州立的媒體來發佈緊急資訊,但私人媒體也可以跟政府合作在緊急時刻即時插播來自於總統的緊急訊息。很難相信他們在緊急時刻會拒絕提供政府這項協助。
Some might also point out that the United States can’t force people to evacuate, a major cause of death as residents ignore evacuation warnings. But as the Galveston delegation determined, “an informed populace, more keenly involved and aware of the risk a natural disaster poses, will be more likely to evacuate voluntarily.” In other words, making ordinary people part of the response effort, delegating responsibilities to them and educating them about the dangers of natural disasters, means they’re more likely to take such threats seriously — as is guaranteeing the safety of their personal property.
?#34892;?#20154;更提到美國政府不能強迫平民疏散,很大一部分的傷亡是來自於對疏散警示的漠視。但如同Galveston代表團指出,”一個充分知悉、勤於參與和了解自然災害嚴重性的民眾,會更容易自願性地疏散?#20445;?#25563;句話說,讓一般人負起部分災難反應的責任,教育他們自然災害的危害,意味著他們更會把災害當一回事,也是保證他們自身財產的安全。
The Cuban model is not some kind of outlier that is the outgrowth of its authoritarian political system. It’s a product of political will. The government decided they would prioritize the lives of the Cuban people, including the most vulnerable, and built a hurricane response program around that.
古巴模範並不是一個在他專制政體之下的產物,而是一個政治決心的展現。政府決定將古巴人民的性命置於第一要務,即便是最脆弱的地方,因此設立了這樣的一個颶風防範計劃。
Imagine what the United States, a nation with more one hundred times Cuba’s wealth and resources, could do if its politicians made the same decision.
試想看看美國,一個比起古巴擁有百倍以上財富與資源的國家,能夠做到的事,只要在位者能做出同樣的決定。

No comments

Please register or sign in to post a comment.
青海快3和值走势图带连线
青海快3昨日走势 青海快3最多几倍 青海快3和值走势图带连线 青海快3历史开奖结果走势图 青海快3网 青海快3规律破解 青海快3开奖结果今天 青海快3+111 青海快3第111505期开 23号青海快3走势 青海快35月10开奖结果 青海快3走势图基本走势 青海快3规律破解 甘肃快3青海快3 青海快3开奖号码今天专家推测
河南麻将小游戏 北京pk10是电脑控制吗 超级高速公路之王返水 西班牙人直播视频 风暴魔域手游官网下载 今天独行侠vs太阳赛事分析 海豚礁电子游艺 云南福利彩票官网 陕西快乐10分几点开始几点停止售票